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Proceedings of the ICE - Structures and Buildings

image of Proceedings of the ICE - Structures and Buildings
ISSN: 0965-0911
E-ISSN: 1751-7702

Impact Factor 0.609

Structures and Buildings publishes peer-reviewed papers on the design and construction of civil engineering structures and the applied research associated with such activities. Topics include the design, strength, durability and behaviour of structural components and systems.

Topics covered: energy conservation, people movement within and around buildings, strength and durability of steel and concrete structural components, and the behaviour of building and bridge components and systems.

  • - To submit to this journal is free. Papers appear Ahead of Print (below) as soon as they are ready to be published. Ahead of print articles are fully citable using the DOI system.

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  • Development of prefabricated timber–concrete composite floor systems
    Author(s): Massimo Fragiacomo; Elzbieta Lukaszewska
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  • The timber–concrete composite structure consists of timber joists or beams effectively interconnected to a concrete slab cast on top of the timber members. This type of structure is finding new applications in multi-storey buildings and short-span bridges. Most of the research performed to date has focused on systems where ‘wet' concrete is cast on top of timber beams with mounted connectors. This paper presents a novel composite system where the concrete slab is prefabricated off-site with connectors already embedded and then connected to the timber joists on site. The advantages of this method include reduced cost and better quality control of the materials, absence of ‘wet' components on site during building erection and reduced concrete shrinkage effects on the composite beam. The paper reports an overview of a pilot research project conducted at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, which includes direct shear tests to failure of different connection systems, bending tests to failure, dynamic (vibration) tests and long-term tests under sustained load of full-scale composite beams. The paper also reports the mechanical properties of the connection, which can be used within a simple design method given in Eurocode 5. The economic advantages of prefabrication and the possibility of demounting the structure make the proposed floor system very promising.
  • Modular design for high-rise buildings
    Author(s): R. M. Lawson; J. Richards
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  • Modular construction is widely used for residential buildings of four to eight storeys and there is pressure to extend this relatively new form of construction to 12 storeys or more. This paper reviews recent modular technologies, and also presents load tests and the analysis of light steel modular walls in compression. A design method for high-rise modular applications is presented taking account of second-order effects and installation tolerances. For the modular walls tested, it was found that the plasterboard and external sheathing boards effectively prevent minor axis buckling of the C sections, so that failure occurred either by major axis buckling or local crushing of the section. In all cases, the results of the tests on 75 mm and 100 mm deep × 1·6 mm thick C sections exceeded the design resistance to BS 5950-5 by 10 to 40%. However, an eccentricity of 20 mm in load application reduced the failure load by 18 to 36% owing to local crushing of the C section. Tension tests on typical connections between the modules and corridors gave a failure load of 40 kN, which is adequate to transfer wind forces to a braced core and also to provide tying action in the event of loss of support to one corner of a module. Corner posts provide enhanced compression resistance but their buckling resistance is dependent on the sway stiffness of the wall panel. It is also shown that the notional horizontal force approach for steel structures presented in BS 5950-1 should be increased for modular construction.
  • Wind-induced vibrations of buildings: role of transient events
    Author(s): Tracy Kijewski-Correa; Audrey Bentz
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  • The design of tall buildings, in many cases, is governed by habitability limit states, where accelerations predicted from wind tunnel studies emulating stationary, boundary layer flows associated with synoptic winds are compared to accepted standards for occupant comfort. In both the accelerations predicted for these design limit states and the criteria they are evaluated against, tall building design practice has consciously neglected other types of responses that result from more transient wind events, such as thunderstorms, owing to their short duration. In fact, these types of events and the impulse-like responses they induce in dynamically sensitive structures were not even considered in occupant comfort tests on human subjects until very recently. However, full-scale monitoring programmes on tall buildings, and anecdotal reports from their occupants, have verified that these events do occur regularly and are capable of producing accelerations that exceed those generated by their stationary synoptic counterparts at comparable wind speeds, thus generating perceptible motions on more frequent recurrence intervals. Therefore, it becomes important to investigate the dynamic behaviour of tall buildings under transient wind events and to attempt to gain some understanding of the mechanisms causing these large acceleration responses. The present study attempts to do just that, developing analysis frameworks appropriate for non-stationary records and applying them to full-scale data to enable rare insights into the dynamics of tall buildings under transient wind events, particularly those buildings with marked amplitude dependence and coupling between lateral and torsional modes.
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  • Timber-reinforced structures in Greece: 2500 BC–1900 AD
    Author(s): E. Vintzileou
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  • The survey of numerous monuments and historic structures in Greece – a country situated in the most earthquake-prone area of the eastern Mediterranean – has revealed a systematic and continuous through-centuries use of timber elements within masonry. The extent of the use of timber in the structures, the contribution of the timber to the overall structural system, the specific measures taken to protect timber from decay and, hence, the efficiency of the developed structural systems present a vast variety, associated with social and economical factors. This extensive use of timber makes it legitimate to assume that our predecessors were aware of the effect of timber-reinforcing systems on the seismic behaviour of structures. This paper provides information on the use of timber in structures in Greece ranging from the Minoan Crete 2500 years BC to Akrotiri, Thera sixteenth century BC, to Byzantine churches and monasteries, and finally to more than 70 urban nuclei within the country that were developed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
  • Deep embedment of FRP for concrete shear strengthening
    Author(s): P. Valerio; T. J. Ibell; A. P. Darby
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  • The shear capacity of existing concrete structures is often unable to meet current standards requirements. This may be attributable to increased load requirements, inadequate shear provisions in the original design, deterioration of materials or an increased demand in shear capacity owing to flexural strengthening. There are various approaches to the repair and strengthening of existing concrete structures in shear using fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP), involving the use of plates or fabrics externally bonded to the web, prestressed straps wrapped around the beam or the use of bars mounted near the surfaces of the web. However, when only the top or bottom faces of the concrete member are accessible, as in the case of bridge beams made contiguous within a deck or for corbels, a different approach is proposed, called the deep embedment technique: vertical holes are drilled into concrete upwards from the soffit in the shear zones, high-viscosity epoxy resin is injected and then FRP or steel bars are embedded into place. In this paper, the results of a series of tests on unstrengthened and strengthened small-scale and large-scale reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete specimens with and without stirrups are presented. The proposed technique is shown to be feasible, successful and potentially more effective than other shear strengthening approaches. A simple model derived from the truss analogy is shown to be able to predict the capacity of the strengthened beams and can therefore be used as a design tool for the scheme.
  • Analysis of steel–concrete composite column subject to blast
    Author(s): Kok Wei Kang; Siew Chin Lee; Richard J. Y. Liew
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  • The single-degree-of-freedom method is commonly used to approximate the dynamic response of structures subjected to blast loading. One of the limitations of this method is that it cannot capture the multi-failure modes of the structural members. The rigid–plastic method is thus, proposed in this paper as an alternative analytical approach to estimate the blast response of concrete-filled steel composite columns. The rigid–plastic results are compared with single-degree-of-freedom calculations as well as numerical simulations in order to assess the competency of the proposed method. Due to the assumption of rigid–plastic material behaviour in the rigid–plastic analysis, the accuracy of this method is influenced by the extent of plastic deformation of the structural member. For the case of impulsive blast loading, the rigid–plastic estimations are found to be closer to the numerical results than those obtained using the single-degree-of-freedom method. Numerical analysis was also conducted to compare the performance of concrete-filled steel composite column to a reinforced concrete column. A significant improvement in the blast resistance of the composite column was observed from the comparison.
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