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Proceedings of the ICE - Ground Improvement

image of Proceedings of the ICE - Ground Improvement
ISSN: 1755-0750
E-ISSN: 1755-0769

Ground Improvement publishes peer-reviewed papers on technological developments, feasibility studies and innovative engineering applications for all aspects of ground improvement, ground reinforcement and grouting.

The journal publishes high quality, practical papers relevant to engineers, specialist contractors and academics involved in the development, design, construction, monitoring and quality control aspects of ground improvement. It covers a wide range of civil and environmental engineering applications, including analytical advances, performance evaluations, pilot and model studies, instrumented case-histories and innovative applications of existing technology.

- To submit a paper to this journal is free. Papers appear Ahead of Print (below) as soon as they are ready to be published. Ahead of print articles are fully citable using the DOI system.



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  • Ground improvement techniques for railway embankments
    Author(s): A. Arulrajah; A. Abdullah; M. W. Bo; A. Bouazza
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  • A high-speed railway project for trains of speeds of up to 160 km/h is currently being constructed between Rawang and Bidor (110 km long) in Peninsular Malaysia. The ground improvement methods adopted in the project are vibro-replacement with stone columns, dry deep soil mixing (cement columns), geogrid-reinforced piled embankments with individual pile caps and removal/replacement works. This paper provides a detailed insight into the design and implementation of vibro-replacement and the deep soil mixing treatment methods used in the project. The use of plate bearing tests and field instrumentation to monitor the performance of the stone columns and soil mixing ground treatment methods is also discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of other treatment methods implemented in this high-speed railway project such as a pile embankment with geogrids and removal/replacement works.
  • Deep soft soil improvement by alkaline activation
    Author(s): Nuno Cristelo; Stephanie Glendinning; Amândio Teixeira Pinto
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  • This research studied the use of alkaline activation of fly ash, as a silica and alumina amorphous source, to improve soft soils. A laboratory programme – including tests to study strength and deformability development, alternative curing methods, the effect of the different components of the grout, effect of raising initial temperature and comparison with a cement grout – was carried out. Laboratory tests revealed that the use of fly ash and alkaline activator resulted in a soil strength improvement up to 11·4, 16·7 and 43·4 MPa, at 28, 90 and 365 days curing, respectively. The most effective combinations obtained in the laboratory were chosen for the field application with jet grouting. The grout performed adequately to pass standard engineering specifications for soil mixing, achieving up to 26·4 MPa at 90 days curing. The main conclusion is the potential of alkaline activation for soil improvement, and therefore this research has created a basis for further studies.
  • Electrokinetic treatment on a tropical residual soil
    Author(s): Kamarudin Bin Ahmad; Mohd. Raihan Taha; Khairul Anuar Kassim
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  • The results of shear box and consolidation tests on electrokinetically-treated tropical residual soil are presented. Injections of selected chemicals (calcium chloride, aluminium chloride and phosphoric acid) into the soil samples at the anodes or cathodes were carried out in cylindrical electrokinetic cells via applications of 30 V DC electrical potential for 168 h. Four different open-anode and open-cathode electrokinetic systems utilising different anolytes and catholytes were employed to treat the soil samples. The shear resistances of the treated soil utilising distilled water as the anolyte and 1·0 mol/l phosphoric acid as the catholyte was enhanced, whereas the treated soil near the cathode showed significant reduction in compressibility. Soil treated utilising the other chemicals showed no significant changes.
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  • Consolidation settlement of floating-column-improved soft clayey deposit
    Author(s): Supasit Pongsivasathit; Jinchun Chai; Wenqi Ding
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  • The interaction behaviour between a floating column and the surrounding soil, with or without a surface cement stabilised slab, has been investigated by laboratory model tests as well as finite-element analysis (FEA) using an axisymmetric unit cell model. Based on the test and the FEA results, a method for calculating the consolidation settlement–time curve of floating-column-improved soft clayey subsoil has been developed. This method has been modified from the earlier method of Chai and Pongsivasathit by treating a part of the column improved layer with a thickness of H c as an unimproved layer in settlement calculation to consider the effect of possible penetration of the column into the soft soil layer below the column. An explicit equation for calculating the value of H c has been proposed as a function of area improvement ratio ( α ), depth improvement ratio ( β ), load intensity (p) and the undrained shear strength (s u) of the soft clayey soil. The validity of the method has been checked using the laboratory model test results as well as four field case histories in Japan.
  • Improvement of shear strength of loose sandy soils by grouting
    Author(s): Santhosh Kumar; Benny Mathews Abraham; Asuri Sridharan; Babu T. Jose
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  • The soil profile in many coastal areas often consists of very loose sandy soil extending to a depth of 3 to 4 m from ground level underlain by clayey soils of medium consistency. The very low shearing resistance of the foundation bed causes local as well as punching shear failure of soil. Structures built on these soils, may also suffer from excessive settlements. This paper discusses grouting as one of the possible solutions to the foundation problems by improving the properties of loose sandy soil at shallow depths.
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