Micro and nano patterning of carbon electrodes for bioMEMS
- Authors: Swati Sharma 1, 2, 3 ; Marc Madou 4, 5, 6
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- Source: Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials, Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 pages 252 –265
Carbon based bioMEMS are an emerging class of miniaturized biomedical devices. Due to the numerous advantages such as scalable manufacturing processes, inexpensive and readily available precursor polymer materials, tunable surface properties and biocompatibility, carbon has become a preferred material for a wide variety of future biosensing applications. In this article, we review fabrication methodologies for carbon-MEMS (CMEMS) and carbon-NEMS (CNEMS) devices and strategies for their surface modification for biocompatibility and for biosensing. We also discuss the underlying graphitic and glassy microstructures of carbon since the biocompatibility of carbon and its microstructures are intertwined. We conclude by exploring various CMEMS and CNEMS devices that have been successfully fabricated.